## Juli 28, 2012

Using KOMA-script for my dissertation, does make me a bit confuse. Reading its manual is a bit daunting since I am a new user of KOMA-Script although I am a self-proclaimed average LaTeX user. Here I will give a guide to create fancy header. I will not explain a lot, just directly put my LaTeX source so that you can get them directly to create a fancy header. Here's the source:

\documentclass{scrreprt}
\usepackage{url}
\usepackage{listings}

\usepackage[usenames,dvipsnames]{color}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{wrapfig}
\usepackage[pdftex]{graphicx}
\usepackage{setspace}

\usepackage[Sonny]{fncychap}
%\usepackage[Bjornstrup]{fncychap}

\usepackage[automark]{scrpage2}

\begin{document}

\automark[section]{chapter}
\cfoot{}

\KOMAoptions{abstract=on}

\definecolor{light-gray}{gray}{0.95}
\lstset{numbers=left,basicstyle=\scriptsize,numberstyle=\scriptsize,frame=tb,captionpos=b,backgroundcolor=\color{light-gray},showspaces=false,showstringspaces=false}

\input{./cover.tex}
\input{./abstract.tex}

\tableofcontents

\listoffigures

\lstlistoflistings

\input{./01-introduction.tex}
\input{./02-background.tex}
\input{./03-research-goals.tex}
\input{./04-research-contributions.tex}
\input{./05-future-directions.tex}
\input{./06-bibliographies.tex}

\end{document}


I put all of my main full source so that you can imagine how to fit KOMA-Script into your source. The part of the source which come from KOMA-Script listed below:

Preparation

\documentclass{scrreprt}

\usepackage[automark]{scrpage2}


 \pagestyle{scrheadings}
\automark[section]{chapter}
\cfoot{}


Display "Abstract" Title

 \KOMAoptions{abstract=on}



The result is the document which has page number as the footer in every beginning of the chapter and the fancy header with chapter - section - page number and line for the next pages.

I believe that you love to read the manual, so if you want to know the meaning of the commands above, have a look at KOMA-Script manual. :)

## Install User Level Tex Live Package - fncychap

Tex Live provide a big comprehensive TeX system which is very useful for document production. Although Tex Live provide complete but still there are lots of packages which are available at CTAN and can be installed to suit our need. Here I will explain a bit about how to install a package, specifically at user level, not global level. The package which will be installed is fncychap. This package is used to manage our "Chapter" display.

Directory Location

Packages in Tex Live installed in and /usr/share/texmf-dist. Those packages are available for all of users in the system. To check whether a package is installed, we can test it by asking kpsewhich to the system:

$kpsewhich fancyhdr.sty /usr/share/texmf-dist/tex/latex/fancyhdr/fancyhdr.sty$


We may see the pattern. All of the package's file reside in /usr/share/texmf-dist/tex/latex/package-name/. If we want to install the package, actually we can do that easily by just copy all of the distribution according to this pattern, but this practice is discouraged and considered a bad practice since it can be confusing whenever we want to uninstall or whenever Tex Live is upgraded. If it can not find the package, it will says like this:

$kpsewhich wuthesis$


Well, nothing, huh? Yes. It says nothing. How polite :). In my Linux box, all of the user level packages should be installed by copy them to $HOME/texmf/tex/latex/, so whenever we want to install package, just copy them to that directory: $ ls -la ~/texmf/tex/latex/
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 3 bpdp users 4096 Jul 28 10:05 .
drwxr-xr-x 3 bpdp users 4096 Jul 28 09:18 ..
drwxr-xr-x 2 bpdp users 4096 Jul 28 09:18 fncychap
[bpdp@bpdp-arch submitted]$ Enter fncychap fncychap package is a package, created by Ulf. A. Lindgren, to alter chapter headings appearance. To install this package, just copy them to$HOME/texmf/tex/latex/ as written above. To use this package, just use it:

...
\usepackage[Sonny]{fncychap}
...


You may other style then Sonny, for example Bjarne, Lenny, Bjornstrup, Glenn, Conny, and Rejne. The result is like this:

Beautiful :)

## Web Semiotics: Web As a Sign System

Introduction

A "web application", also known as "website" or just "web", is a kind of application which uses client-server architecture built on top of TCP/IP network infrastructure. This has become an important part of every organization in the world. Lots of people around the world use organization's website as the way to find any information about organization, products, quality, and any other things specific for that organization. Therefore, it is important to understand how one can develop a website which will become a representation of the organization. In this sense, we may say that the website has become a sign which will represent the organization. An understanding of the sign systems as the key concepts in semiotics will be important for web engineer.

What is Semiotics?

Semiotics itself is a complex topic. Its root comes from ancient greek although at first it comes from medical things by Hippocrates (460 - 377 BC) to mean essentially a medical diagnosis, a disease based on 'sign' or known as symptoms. It was Plato (circa 428 - 347 BC) who took it away from medical diagnosis with his argumentation that human forms were deceptive things that did not stand for reality directly, but rather as a mental idealization of it (Danesi, 2004). Aristotle (384 - 322 BC), a pupil of Pluto, investigate the relation between forms and reality more closely. There are still many name who has big impact toward semiotics world but since we will not concentrate on historical perspective, we will not go into the details on semiotics history. We will propose some theories which will have impact towards our understanding of Web as a sign systems.

The term "Semiotics" was used by British Philosopher - John Locke (1632 - 1704). At that time, the term was "Semeiotics" (from Greek word "Semeion", means "a sign, a mark"), and it was used in his book "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (1690). Meanwhile, Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 - 1913) used the word "Semiology" to denote the study of sign (he used the -logy just as other discipline such as psychology, biology, anthropology, sociology, etc). Charles S. Pierce reintroduce Locke's concept and consistently used the word "Semiotics". Until now, it becomes a strong influence and people tend to use the word "Semiotics" (Danesi, 2004). There are some scholars who made definition about Semiotics. The shortest definition is that it is "the study of signs", while a sign is defined as "something that stands for something, to someone in some capacity" (Danesi and Perron, 1999). A definition of Semiotics by Ferdinand de Saussure (although he called it "Semiology" in this definition) will be used:

A science that studies the life of signs within society is conceivable. It would be part of social psychology and consequently of general psychology. I shall call it semiology (from Greek semeion “sign”). Semiology would show what constitutes signs, what laws govern them.

Saussure offered a "dyadic" or two-part model of the sign. He defined a sign as being composed of "signifier" / "signifiant" (the form which the sign takes) and the "signified" / "signifié" (the concept it represents) (Chandler, 2011). In a graphical form, this definition and its example can be represented below (picture was taken from Chandler, 2011):

Different with Saussure, Peirce characterized "triadic" or three-part model of the sign. He defined a sign as being composed of the three elements:

1. Sign or Representamen (e.g Saussure's signifier).
2. Object: the thing that represented by sign. This could be physically real object such as "laptop" and "car", or abstract concept such as "bright idea" and "I don't care about the story that you told me and I feel boring".
3. Interpretant: according to Peirce in his own words: "The Sign creates something in the Mind of the Interpreter, which something, in that it has been so created by the sign, has been, in a mediate and relative way, also created by the Object of the Sign, although the Object is essentially other than the Sign. And this creature of the sign is called the Interpretant" (see Bergman and Paavola, 2003). Simply put, it is the part of sign which is used to denote the meaning of sign by sign interpreter, the sense made by the sign.

These triadic model can be represented with the diagram below (picture was taken from Irvine, 2012):

The Peirce triadic model also known as "The Semiotic Triangle", has some variants. The most well-known variant is the semiotic triangle which proposed by Ogden and Richard in their book which was published in 1923 titled "The Meaning of Meaning" (picture was taken from http://lchc.ucsd.edu/mca/Paper/Engestrom/expanding/ch2.htm):

Semiotics and Sign System

Loosely speaking, a website can always be considered as the representation of whatever behind the website, be it a company, a person, business entity, musical band, singer, etc. Using Peirce's Triadic, we may define a website as a part of semiotics and as a sign system below:

It is clear from the diagram that developing website should consider first about "what should be the interpretant"? We may then can begin our adventure to web semiotics by accomodating some theory from algebra, which is now known as "Algebra Semiotics". Surely there are many areas which affect the engineering of a website, for example, social aspect should be considered as an important part, the "knowledge" embedded into the website also make sense as a part of knowledge engineering, while we should not forget also many technical TCP/IP things and all other important software engineering topics related with the engineering of the web, and many others.

In the future, I will dig deeper about Algebra Semiotics and how it probably can help developers in Semantic and Pragmatic Web.

References
• Daniel Chandler, "Semiotics for Beginner", http://users.aber.ac.uk/dgc/Documents/S4B/, accessed July 8, 2012 22:40.
• Marcel Danesi, Paul Perron, "Analyzing Cultures: An Introduction and Handbook", Indiana University Press, 1999.
• Marcel Danesi, "Messages, Signs, and Meanings: A Basic Textbook in Semiotics and Communication", 3rd edition, Canadian Scholars' Press Inc, Toronto, 2004.
• Martin Irvine, "Structural Linguistics, Semiotics, and Communication Theory: Basic Outlines and Assumptions", http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Semiotics_and_Communication.html, accessed July 9, 2012 05:45.
• Mats Bergman, Sami Paavola, "The Commens Dictionary of Peirce's Terms", http://www.helsinki.fi/science/commens/dictionary.html, accessed July 9, 2012 05:16.

## Utilizing Leiningen Profile

In my previous post about setting up Emacs for Clojure development, I suggest to include lein-swank inside the plugins' project.clj. Eventhough this approach work, here I will explain how to use Leiningen profile to separate the plugins / libraries which will act as helper and with other plugins / libraries which will be included in the project result. You will find that separation of concerns is beatiful.

Ok, now here's the problem. I would like to use lein-swank for my development with Emacs but I don't want to interfere my project with all of those clutters, I just want my project to include my source code and my libraries. This is where Leiningen profile comes into play. To this end, use profile.clj inside Leiningen home (that is $HOME/.lein/). The default profile which will be executed is "user". Here is mine: [bpdp@bpdp-arch ~]$ tree .lein/
.lein/
|-- profiles.clj
-- self-installs
|-- leiningen-1.7.1-standalone.jar
-- leiningen-2.0.0-preview7-standalone.jar

1 directory, 3 files[bpdp@bpdp-arch ~]$ Here's the profile.clj content: [bpdp@bpdp-arch .lein]$ cat profiles.clj
{:user {:plugins [[lein-swank "1.4.4"]
[lein-pprint "1.1.1"]]}}
[bpdp@bpdp-arch .lein]$ This way, you can - for example - execute lein-swank without include them in your project.clj anymore. You may add other plugins. I just use lein-pprint in the meantime. There are still many things that can be done using this profile, for example, you can use this profile to test multiversion plugins / libraries, etc. I will write them later. Happy hacking! ## Juli 12, 2012 ## Using Emacs for Clojure Development There are many (confusing) blog posts about using Emacs for Clojure development but I promise you not to make you confuse a bit more (hopefully. :-D). Since I use Clojure for my dissertation and usually Clojurians use Emacs (for obvious reasons), then here I come. There are some steps to do to prepare Emacs. I use Linux (Arch Linux) here, so, probably it won't be applicable for other OS, but this usually the same with other Linux distros. Some software that needs to be installed properly before are JDK, Clojure, Leiningen (I use version 2), and Emacs (version 24, 23 is okay but you have to prepare package management by yourself and it's quite tricky). Those are already explained properly at each of the website, so I will not repeat it again here. Basically, there are one-time-only setup procedures below: 1. Setup Emacs package management 2. Install clojure-mode, swank-clojure, slime and slime-repl 3. Prepare syntax highlighting When they are all installed and configured successfully, then the project and source code should be configured to include swank-clojure. 1. Prepare project: source code and dependencies. After all of those steps, then all you have to do is coding. The details follow. Setup Emacs Package Management In Linux, usually all of those Emacs file for user will reside in$HOME/.emacs.d/. Inside, there is a file - init.el - which is used to store Lisp script for Emacs configuration. To setup Emacs package management, put this into init.el:

(require 'package)
(setq package-archives '(("ELPA" . "http://tromey.com/elpa/")
("gnu" . "http://elpa.gnu.org/packages/")
(package-initialize)


Those lines are used to let Emacs know about the package archives / repositories (ELPA, gnu, and marmalade) then activate package management. If you edit the init.el file from Emacs, you may activate them by using M-x eval-current-buffer when you are in init.el buffer. If you are confuse, just exit from Emacs (C-x C-c) then fire up Emacs again.

Install clojure-mode, swank-clojure, slime and slime-repl
SLIME (The Superior Lisp Interaction Mode for Emacs) and SLIME-REPL are package to interact with Lisp, especially useful for coding (code evaluation, completion, /etc). In this post, we will install this and make it interact with swank for the benefit of coding in Clojure inside Emacs. Here is how to install them:
1. M-x package-list-packages, it will access package repositories and show them inside buffer.
2. Find clojure-mode, swank-clojure, slime, and slime-repl on the list. In each of package, click on the name, then click on "Install" (yes, you can also use your keyboad: put cursor on the name, enter, then "C-x o" to go to the description window below, put cursor on "Install" then RET (or you may call it Enter key).

Prepare Syntax Highlighting
To activate clojure-mode and make all color output, put this into init.el:
;; these for Clojure, activate then turn on
(require 'clojure-mode)
(defun turn-on-paredit () (paredit-mode 1))

;; syntax highlighting for swank
(defun clojure-mode-slime-font-lock ()
(require 'clojure-mode)
(let (font-lock-mode)
(clojure-mode-font-lock-setup))))
;;

And that's all for setting up Clojure development environment in Emacs. The following detail is only one-time whenever you want to create new project.

Prepare Project Source Code and Dependencies
Using Leiningen, use this command (my Leiningen script name is "lein2", by default, if you follow installation instruction in Leiningen website, this script name should be "lein". I use "lein2" because I have 2 Leiningen alive: "lein" for stable version - 1.x and "lein2" for development version - 2.x):

[bpdp@bpdp-arch clojure]$lein2 new zax Generating a project called zax based on the 'default' template. To see other templates (app, lein plugin, etc), try lein help new. [bpdp@bpdp-arch clojure]$ tree zax/
zax/
|-- doc
|   -- intro.md
|-- project.clj
|-- src
|   -- zax
|       -- core.clj
|-- target
|   |-- classes
|   -- stale
|       -- dependencies
-- test
-- zax
-- core_test.clj

8 directories, 6 files
[bpdp@bpdp-arch clojure]$ Edit project.clj to include lein-swank plugin: [bpdp@bpdp-arch zax]$ cat project.clj
(defproject zax "0.1.0-SNAPSHOT"
:description "FIXME: write description"
:url "http://example.com/FIXME"
:url "http://www.eclipse.org/legal/epl-v10.html"}
:dependencies [[org.clojure/clojure "1.4.0"]]
:plugins [[lein-swank "1.4.4"]])
[bpdp@bpdp-arch zax]$ That's all for project and source code preparation. Now, whenever you want to go crazy with Emacs and Clojure, activate swank server and have it connected from inside Emacs. This step below will show you the details: Activate swank server Use this command from shell: [bpdp@bpdp-arch zax]$ lein2 swank 4005 localhost :colors? true
Listening for transport dt_socket at address: 50069
Connection opened on localhost port 4005.

From inside Emacs, you may connect to this process by using "M-x slime-connect". Emacs will ask you the host and port where swank live:

Host: 127.0.0.1
Port: 4005

RET to accept the default value. Emacs will activate SLIME:

The statement "Connected. Your hacking starts... NOW!" probably different with yours. It will be displayed randomly (some will make you laugh or at least smile). Whenever we have source code in Clojure, we can evaluate or do many things (see swank-clojure README). Here I just want to give example of evaluating current buffer. Put the source code into the new buffer, here's the example:

(defn relay [x i]
(when (:next x)
(send (:next x) relay i))
(when (and (zero? i) (:report-queue x))
(.put (:report-queue x) i))
x)

(defn run [m n]
(let [q (new java.util.concurrent.SynchronousQueue)
hd (reduce (fn [next _] (agent {:next next}))
(agent {:report-queue q}) (range (dec m)))]
(doseq [i (reverse (range n))]
(send hd relay i))
(.take q)))

(time (run 1000 1000))

(print "It's the end of the beginning")

To evaluate and run, go to the buffer, then do "C-c C-k". Here's the result:

The result will be showed in REPL:

That's all. happy hacking!